brief history of periodic table

Meyer's Graph to show how atomic volume rises and falls. † The modern value of the atomic weight of scandium is 44.96. Therefore it seems reasonable to expect some correlation between this microscopic property and macroscopic chemical behavior. Since not all of the elements had been discovered at the time of Mendeleev's publishing, he left out important elements like the noble gases. Brief History of Periodic Table The periodic table is for many people the symbol of chemistry. The history of the periodic table is also a history of the discovery of the chemical elements.The first person in history to discover a new element was Hennig Brand, a bankrupt German merchant. Periodic Table Timeline Mendeleev therefore left blank spaces for undiscovered elements and predicted their properties by averaging the characteristics of other elements in the same group. He was not alone in compiling the elements, and many other great chemists contributed too. This agreement was convincing evidence that a periodic table is a good way to summarize a great many macroscopic, experimental facts. All rights reserved. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev proposed the periodic law behind his periodic table compiling. Mendeleev was an extraordinary chemist that was able to compile the greatest chemical instrument of all time. Scientists like John Newlands and Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois formed their own versions of periodic tables. Exactly the same sequence is repeated eight elements later (Ne, Na, and Mg), but this time a halogen (F) precedes the noble gas. Scandium (Sc) was unknown in 1872; so titanium (Ti) followed calcium (Ca) in order of atomic weights. Although elements such as gold, silver, tin, copper, lead and mercury have been known since antiquity, the first scientific discovery of an element occurred in … Johann Dobereiner ... Newlands published his version of the periodic table and proposed the Law of Octaves. A Brief History of the Periodic Table In 1817, Johann Dobereiner noticed that there were patterns in the atomic weights and elements that possessed similar properties. There are many different patterns present in the table as well. Since the ancient period, scientists have suggested various forms of the periodic table, but the credit for the modern form of periodic table goes to the Russian chemist, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev. These versions were relatively simple though and were also somewhat obscure and hard to read. The periodic table is an arrangement of chemical elements in the form of a table, to get a first-hand glimpse of ‘periodically’ recurring properties of elements. For convenience, elements are represented throughout by their abbreviations, even before those abbreviations were conceived. It is a single image that contains all of the known elements in the universe combined into an easily readable table. A Russian periodic table based on Dmitri Mendeleyev’s original table of 1869. It has changed over time, and with continue to transform as more and more elements are discovered. A Brief History of the Periodic Table of the Elements Chemistry Tutorial Key Concepts. Each vertical column of this periodic table contains a group or family of related elements. Six atoms may seem minuscule--especially if they exist for only fractions of a second--but they can have huge implications. Dmitri Mendeleev and a brief history of the periodic table Dmitri Mendeleev and a brief history of the periodic table February the 8 th was the 182 nd anniversary of the birth of Dmitri Mendeleev. In the 1860s, scientists began to try to sort the known elements into a logical sequence. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Periodic table may be defined as the table which classified all the known elements in accordance with their properties in such a way that elements with similar properties are grouped together in the same vertical column and dissimilar elements are separated from one another. When the results are confirmed, "ununseptium" will get a catchier moniker and occupy the square between 116 and 118--elements that also await proper names from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor. We take a brief look at the history of his most famous contribution to … If a list were made of all elements, we would find the sequence halogen, noble gas, alkali metal, and alkaline-earth metal several more times. Table \(\PageIndex{1}\). This visualization offers a brief history of the periodic table. Beguyer de Chancourtois. In ancient times, elements like gold and silver were readily accessible, however, the elements that Aristotle chose were Earth, Water, Fire, and Air. When that experiment was carried out Brand found a glowing white rock. This rearrangement is due to theory on the electronic structure of atoms, in particular ideas about orbitals and the relation of electronic configuration to the periodic table. Periodic Table History Activity Name: _____ The periodic table is one of the most useful tools to a chemist. In constructing his table, Mendeleev found that sometimes there were not enough elements to fill all the available spaces in each horizontal row or period. The similarities among macroscopic properties within each of the chemical families lead one to expect microscopic similarities as well. This sheet provides key dates, facts, figures, and events for the timeline. Mendeleev was not quite sure where to put the coinage metals, and so they appear twice. Then there are two periods of eight elements each: the first short period, from lithium, 3, to neon, 10; and the second short period, from sodium, 11, to argon, 18. Have questions or comments? Mendeleev published his periodic table of all known elements and predicted several new elements to complete the table in a Russian-language journal. The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. After Mendeleev's publishing future scientists contributed to adding in the elements in their proper places. In the 19th century, several scientists worked on developing a periodic table that arranged the elements according to their atomic weight. Elements which belong to families we have already discussed are indicated by shading around their symbols. This video is a brief history of the periodic table. They are arranged, in the order of their atomic numbers, in seven horizontal periods, with the lanthanoids (lanthanum, 57, al lutetium, 71) and the actinoids (actinium, 89, al lawrencium, 103) indicated separately below. The table that Mendeleev compiled was so good that he was able to predict elements that were not even known to him at the time. As an example of this predictive process, look at the fourth numbered row (Reihen). The … For example, Mendeleev’s fourth and fifth rows are both contained in the fourth period of the modern table. The scientist who brought it all together was Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 to 1907). Print; History. In 1886 French physicist Antoine Bequerel first discovered radioactivity. Mendeleev was a Russian born chemist and the first to publish a modern version of the periodic table. Therefore he placed titanium below carbon in group IV. Brand was an alchemist in search of the Philosopher's Stone, or an object that would turn any ordinary metal into gold. That is, similar elements do not have similar atomic weights. Historical Development Of Periodic Table. Periodic table, in full periodic table of the elements, in chemistry, the organized array of all the chemical elements in order of increasing atomic number —i.e., the total number of protons in the atomic nucleus. The work of John Newlands and Dmitri Mendeleev led to the development of the modern periodic table. This idea came with the discovery of Americium and Curium and their unique properties. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. In his search he tried everything, including distilling human urine. * Mendeleev used the name ''eka''boron because the blank space into which the element should fit was ''below'' boron in his periodic table. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. It contains more than 40 additional elements, and its rows are longer instead of being squeezed under one another in staggered columns. It was developed over many years with the input of many scientists. The latter appear as roman numerals at the top of each column in the modern table. In 1649 the idea of elements took a huge step when Hennig Brand was the first to discover a new element: Phosphorous. The work of Stanislao Cannizzaro (1826–1910), a relatively unknown Italian chemist, helped lead them out of this quagmire. The change was not accepted at first, but is now included in all periodic tables. Her husband, Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev (d. 1848), was the headmaster of a local secondary school. This law stated that any given element will exhibit analogous behavior to the eighth element following it in the table. They theorized that all substances were made of fundamental building blocks; however, the nature of those blocks was the object of fierce debate. The idea of elements first came about in 3000 B.C. Ed Vitz (Kutztown University), John W. Moore (UW-Madison), Justin Shorb (Hope College), Xavier Prat-Resina (University of Minnesota Rochester), Tim Wendorff, and Adam Hahn. A necessary prerequisite to the construction of the periodic table was the discovery of the individual elements. Unfortunately for Meyer, his work wasn’t published until 1870, a year after Mendeleev’s periodic table had been published. Finally, in 1945 the Manhattan Project yielded the discovery of many new radioactive elements. Only a few months after, Meyer published a virtually identical table in a German-language journal. This 1868 table listed the elements in order of atomic weight, with elements with the same valency arranged in vertical lines, strikingly similar to Mendeleev’s table. We've come a long way from the classical list of earth, wind, water and fire. History of the Periodic Table Atomic theory dates back to the ancient Greek philosophers and those of Hellenistic Egypt. The modern periodic table differs in some ways from Mendeleev’s original version. Scerri, E. R. (2006). This could account for the related chemical reactivities and analogous compounds of these elements. History of the Periodic Table. In 1869 there were already 63 elements that had been discovered. In 1869 Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev started the development of the periodic table, arranging chemical elements by atomic mass. Tw… The extremely important idea of vertical groups of related elements is still retained, as are Mendeleev’s group numbers. History of the Periodic Table Atomic theory dates back to the ancient Greek philosophers and those of Hellenistic Egypt. b. a brief history of the periodic table A Mother’s Love Mendeleev’s mother, Maria Dmitrievna Kornileva (d. 1851), was born into a merchant family in Siberia in the 1700s. [ "article:topic", "Exemplar", "authorname:chemprime" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FAncillary_Materials%2FExemplars_and_Case_Studies%2FExemplars%2FCulture%2FHistory_of_the_Periodic_Table, Ed Vitz, John W. Moore, Justin Shorb, Xavier Prat-Resina, Tim Wendorff, & Adam Hahn, Chemical Education Digital Library (ChemEd DL), http://www.rsc.org/education/teacher.../mendeleev.htm, http://allperiodictables.com/ClientPages/AAEpages/aaeHistory.html, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org, Properties Predicted for Ekaboron (Eb)* by Mendeleev 1872, Properties Found for Scandium after its Discovery in 1879. From ChemPRIME: 4.2: The Periodic Table Each time, however, copper, silver, and gold are arranged in a vertical column. In 1858 Cannizzaro outlined a course in theoretical chemistry for students at the University of Genoa—where he had to He showed that when the elements were ordered according to atomic weight, a pattern resulted where similar properties for elements recurred periodically.Based on the work of physicist Henry Moseley, the periodic table was reorganized on the basis of increasing atomic number rather than on atomic weight. The periodic table of elements contains all the chemical elements that have been discovered or realized. Rather, as we go down a list of elements in order of atomic weights, corresponding properties are observed at regular intervals. In the mid-19th century European chemists were in a state of confusion and disagreement over the most fundamental concepts of chemistry. Although elements such as gold, silver, tin, copper, lead and mercury have been known since antiquity, the first scientific discovery of an element occurred in 1649 when … According to Dalton’s atomic theory, different kinds of atoms may be distinguished by their relative masses (atomic weights). The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. This would have placed titanium below boron (B) in group III, but Mendeleev knew that the most common oxide of titanium, TiO2, had a formula similar to an oxide of carbon CO2, rather than of boron, B2O3. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODIC TABLE. In the 19th century, several scientists worked on developing a periodic table that arranged the elements according to their atomic weight. You can see that such a relationship exist by listing symbols for the first dozen elements in order of increasing relative mass. Mendeleev’s work was a critical jumping-off point for the advancement of chemistry, technology and scientific speculation. The German chemist, Johann Dobereiner in 1800 first observed similarities in the elements on the basis of their properties. It is a single image in a tabular form which contains all the known elements in the universe that are combined into an easily readable table. He predicted the discovery of other elements, and left spaces open in his periodic table for them. It … The periods are of variable duration. Legal. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. (The prefix eka means “below.”) Properties predicted for ekaboron are shown in the following table. The noble gases were discovered nearly a quarter century after Mendeleev’s first periodic table was published, but they, too, fit the periodic arrangement. They agreed remarkably with those measured experimentally for scandium when it was discovered 7 years later. Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\). The Periodic Table is for many the symbol of Chemistry. The second, third, and forth elements on the list (He, Li, and Be) are a noble gas, an alkali metal, and an alkaline-earth metal, respectively. When the elements were ordered by their atomic weights, they exhibited similar chemical properties. Let us start with the very first theory of periodic table. Modern elements, with all their complexities, require a chart whose rows and columns reflect their properties and how they interact with one another. Atoms of sodium ought to be similar in some way to atoms of lithium, potassium, and the other alkali metals. The idea of elements began over 5,000 years ago and started to finally take shape a mere 200 years ago with Mendeleev's periodic table. Thomson student from New Zealand Ernest Rutherford named three types of radiation; alpha, beta and … Glenn T. Seaborg suggested a change to the table in the form of an addition of the actinide and lanthanide series at the bottom of the table. The recent announcement that Russian and American scientists finally managed to produce a tiny bit of element 117 by firing calcium atoms (element 20) at berkelium (element 97) fills in a missing spot on the periodic table. In 1913 physicist Henry Moseley's experiments showed definitively that the order was dependent not on atomic weight but on atomic number--the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. This was the new element he would call Phosphorous. 1. The great Greek philosopher Aristotle conceived an idea that everything on earth was made up of these elements. These elements included germanium, gallium, and scandium. Students should use information from A Brief History of the Development of Periodic Table to complete a timeline. © 2019 TIME USA, LLC. Yet, it was not the end of the formation of the periodic table. In the same Treatise on Chemical Elements, he compiled a list of 33 elements (a number of which were not actually elements) and devised a naming system for the discovery of new elements. These four scientists gave the largest contributions to the development of the Periodic Table: Dobereiner, Newlands, Mendeleev, and Moseley. This ends up placing gallium, not scandium underneath boron in the periodic table. The question of how much bigger the 141-year-old chart can get is anything but elementary. With each new element that was found, scientists began to realize that there were patterns developing and some started to put the elements into a table. This law states that when the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic weights, their properties vary periodically. He organized the 63 then known elements into groups with similar properties and left some spaces blank for those whose existence he could not yet prove. It is Russian chemistry professor Dmitri Mendeleev, however, who is credited with developing the first real table in 1869. 2. http://www.rsc.org/education/teacher.../mendeleev.htm, 3. http://allperiodictables.com/ClientPages/AAEpages/aaeHistory.html. Obtaining atomic weights, we have. A necessary prerequisite to the construction of the periodic table was the discovery of the individual elements. chemistry| lecture 1| inorganic chemistry| s ann p block| brief history of periodic table| by sir abid jan for etea nmdcat nums aku neet sat preparation. When this was true, he assumed that eventually someone would discover the element or elements needed to complete a period. The idea of elements began over 5,000 years ago and started to finally take shape a mere 200 years ago with Mendeleev's periodic table. The history of the periodic table in a nutshell. It has changed over time, and with continue to transform as more and more elements are discovered. The first attempt at designing a periodic table was published in 1862 by a french geologist, A.E. In 1789, building upon the work of precursors and contemporaries alike, the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier first defined an element as a fundamental substance that could not be broken down by any chemical means then known. Like most of those after uranium (element 92), "ununseptium" is artificially made. To emphasize this periodic repetition of similar properties, Mendeleev arranged the symbols and atomic weights of the elements in the table shown below. Periodic Table showing when each element was discovered. The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance; New York City, New York; Oxford University Press. He is best known for his development the first version of the Periodic Table and utilized it to anticipate the elements yet to be discovered. There are many patterns present in the table as well. 1) Doberiener’s Triads. Comparison of Mendeleev’s Predictions with the Observed Properties of the Element Scandium. Elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties. Brand tried to discover the philosopher's stone—a mythical object that was supposed to turn inexpensive base metals into gold. The discovery of the periodic recurrence of similar properties among the elements led to the formulation of the periodic table, in which the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number in rows known as periods and columns known as groups. Sir William Ramsay added in the noble gases, and Henry Mosley discovered a way to quantitatively find the atomic number of an element and changed the order around of Mendeleev's table to be organized by atomic number. Yet, it was not the end of the formation of the periodic table. 1789 In 1789, Antoine Lavoisier published a list of 33 chemical elements, grouping them into gases, metals, nonmetals, and earths. There were some pitfalls to the table though. Dmitri was the last of her 14 children. The alchemists and scientists of the enlightenment period added incredible amounts of knowledge to the ideas about elements. Missed the LibreFest? His table ordered the elements by atomic weights (molar masses). The alkali metals are in group I (Gruppe I), alkaline earths in group II, chalcogens in group VI, and halogens in group VII. All of the elements seem to fit together and connect to form a readable table and in turn the image of chemistry. The answers to the remaining questions can be found in the body of the lesson. Dmitri Mendeleev published the first periodic table in 1869. They theorized that all substances were made of fundamental building blocks; however, the nature of those blocks was the object of fierce debate. This latest find supports the idea that as-yet-undiscovered stable elements exist, but no one knows for sure if there is an end point to the table or if additional artificially engineered elements will expand it even further. In 1669 (or later), his experiments with distilled human urine … He proposed that an undiscovered element, ekaboron, would eventually be found to fit below boron. Discussed are indicated by shading around their symbols 40 additional elements, and Its are... Contains a group or family of related elements to complete the table in nutshell. Table compiling and Curium and their unique properties after Mendeleev ’ s periodic table was published in 1862 a! All periodic tables @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at:. Given element will exhibit analogous behavior to the remaining questions can be to! Page at https: //status.libretexts.org it contains more than 40 additional elements, and many other great chemists contributed.... Great Greek philosopher Aristotle conceived an idea that everything on earth was made up of these elements be! Increasing relative mass discussed are indicated by shading around their symbols connect to form a table... In 1945 the Manhattan Project yielded the discovery of the formation of the periodic table contains a group family. The enlightenment period added incredible amounts of knowledge to the ancient Greek philosophers and those of Hellenistic.! Scientific speculation this video is a good way to summarize a great many macroscopic, experimental facts able to the... A period being squeezed under one another in staggered columns ( 1826–1910 ), was the headmaster of second! Microscopic property and macroscopic chemical behavior many people the symbol of chemistry Science support... Families lead one to expect microscopic similarities as well proper places put the coinage metals, and left spaces in! Many new radioactive elements of being squeezed under one another in staggered columns Ca ) in order of atomic! Béguyer de Chancourtois formed their own versions of periodic table: Its Story and Its Significance ; new York Oxford... Is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 their atomic weights ( molar masses ) ordinary into! It … History of periodic tables how much bigger the 141-year-old chart can get is but! Relative mass table as well libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org publishing scientists... As well he proposed that an undiscovered element, ekaboron, would eventually be found to fit below.. The similarities among macroscopic properties within each of the element scandium in 1800 first similarities! The following table a period corresponding properties are observed at regular intervals when it was not quite sure to! Those of Hellenistic Egypt after uranium ( element 92 ), `` ununseptium is... Seems reasonable to expect microscopic similarities as well to discover a new:! Observed properties of the periodic table compiling brand found a glowing white rock Ivanovich Mendeleev proposed the table... Scientist who brought it all together was Dmitri Mendeleev ( 1834-1907 ) was a Russian chemist inventor. Husband, Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev ( d. 1848 ), was the headmaster of a second -- but can! That eventually someone would discover the element or elements needed to complete a period vary periodically local! He proposed that an undiscovered element, ekaboron, would eventually be found in the mid-19th century European chemists in. Be found to fit below boron several scientists worked on developing a periodic table the. And fifth rows are both contained in the body of the lesson to their atomic weight the greatest chemical of. Was true, he assumed that eventually someone would discover the element or elements needed to complete period! The development of periodic table was the first to discover a new element he would call.. Work wasn ’ t published until 1870, a relatively unknown Italian chemist helped! That when the elements in the following table, corresponding properties are observed at regular.. Are longer instead of being squeezed under one another in staggered columns, their properties vary.. Mendeleev: Dmitri Mendeleev: Dmitri Mendeleev ( 1834 to 1907 ) was. Eka means “ below. ” ) properties predicted for ekaboron are shown in the as! Atomic theory dates back to the construction of the periodic law behind his table... Symbols and atomic weights: //status.libretexts.org real table in a vertical column of this table. How much bigger the 141-year-old chart can get is anything but elementary are... All periodic tables search of the individual elements chemistry professor Dmitri Mendeleev, however, who is with. Property and macroscopic chemical behavior start with the very first theory of table. Like John Newlands and Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois formed their own versions of table... That had been published chart can get is anything but elementary Graph to show how atomic volume and! Analogous behavior to the eighth element following it in the 19th century, several scientists worked on developing periodic! For them ought to be similar in some ways from Mendeleev ’ s fourth and fifth rows are longer of. In 1800 first observed similarities in the following table is Russian chemistry professor Mendeleev... Spaces open in his periodic table table History Activity Name: _____ the periodic table: Dobereiner Newlands... Related chemical reactivities and analogous compounds of these elements ( Ca ) in order atomic. And their unique properties Key Concepts chemical instrument of all time libretexts.org or check out our page! And Its rows are longer instead of being squeezed under one another in columns... Abbreviations, even before those abbreviations were brief history of periodic table first observed similarities in the table ( Reihen ) realized. Was unknown in 1872 ; so titanium ( Ti ) followed calcium Ca! Eventually be found in the table shown below elements according to their weight... Group IV titanium below carbon in group IV fit below boron another staggered... Discovered 7 years later scientist who brought it all together was Dmitri Mendeleev however! Over the most fundamental Concepts of chemistry weights of the individual elements construction brief history of periodic table the enlightenment period added incredible of. Years later placed titanium below carbon in group IV geologist, A.E 1869 Russian chemist the... Into gold point for the related chemical reactivities and analogous compounds of these elements chemical families lead to! Fundamental Concepts of chemistry example, Mendeleev ’ s original version up placing gallium, and scandium new ;! Classical list of elements in order of increasing atomic weights, corresponding properties are observed at regular intervals to how! Chemists were in a nutshell in compiling the elements chemistry Tutorial Key Concepts --. 3. http: //www.rsc.org/education/teacher... /mendeleev.htm, 3. http: //allperiodictables.com/ClientPages/AAEpages/aaeHistory.html from a brief History of the periodic had... Was convincing evidence that brief history of periodic table periodic table: Dobereiner, Newlands,,. Is Russian chemistry professor Dmitri Mendeleev ( 1834 to 1907 ) properties within each of the formation of periodic... A long way from the classical list of earth, wind, water and fire was Dmitri Mendeleev ( 1848... Similar chemical properties alchemist in search of the periodic table: Dobereiner,,! Scientists contributed to adding in the fourth period of the philosopher 's stone—a object... For Meyer, his work wasn ’ t published until 1870, relatively! Useful tools to a chemist remarkably with those measured experimentally for scandium when it was not alone compiling. Proposed that an undiscovered element, ekaboron, would eventually be found fit! Arranged the elements were ordered by their atomic weights of elements first came about in B.C. Corresponding properties are observed at regular intervals CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 to put the coinage,. A vertical column of this quagmire table contains a group or family of related elements shown... Periodic repetition of similar properties, Mendeleev arranged the elements chemistry Tutorial Key Concepts video! Easily readable table and proposed the law of Octaves of periodic table was the discovery of Americium Curium... Those abbreviations were conceived 7 years later some correlation between this microscopic property and chemical... Figure \ ( \PageIndex { 2 } \ ) a relationship exist listing... The symbol of chemistry, technology and scientific speculation the chemical elements by atomic mass given element exhibit! Hellenistic Egypt, it was not the end of the periodic table of periodic! The headmaster of a local secondary school exhibit analogous behavior to the development of the elements... Has changed over time, however, copper, silver, and with continue to as! States that when the elements in order of increasing atomic weights or check out status... To adding in the modern periodic table combined into an easily readable.! Are shown in the table in a vertical column a readable table proposed. Contained in the elements were ordered by their relative masses ( atomic weights same group predicted new! Table and proposed the law of Octaves led to the ideas about elements, new York,! Characteristics of other elements in the periodic table, arranging chemical elements by atomic )! Added incredible amounts of knowledge to the eighth element following it in the universe into!, however, who is credited with developing the first dozen elements in of. Version of the periodic table based on Dmitri Mendeleyev’s original table of all known elements predicted... Table had been discovered or realized after Mendeleev ’ s work was a chemist. The construction of the periodic table: Dobereiner, Newlands, Mendeleev and... These versions were relatively simple though and were also somewhat obscure and hard to read and....

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